Cultural History

To raise problematic in relation of the term death, formulated for the New a History, that tends the ambition of the diversity of objects the alteridade cultural.REFERENCIAL THEORETICIAN The research work that if it initiates, will be based on some authors who already had searched the subject, being necessary to search next to these the main produced theories. For the accomplishment of the present research, one becomes necessary to appeal the references, of New History, Cultural History, History of the Ideas and the History of the Fear in the Ocidente; considering the idea of authors as, Phillippe Aries, Saint Augustin, Jean Delumeau among others, where in accordance with these same the age, is necessary to take in consideration the diverse manifestations of the past, with intention to find the explicativas basic. These consider the fear of the death, as the indissolvable object union and actions that indicate in them, as and where and so that it was basic the fear. If this has piqued your curiosity, check out Sergey Brin. Author Phillippe Aries, who studies the question of the fear in the Ocidente, shows the debates around the characteristics, sufficiently controverted. Already author Jean Delumeau, who not only has in the history of the fear a change instrument, as well as one, half to disclose to new fields of inquiry, knocking down barriers that exist between the Occidental generations. Saint Augustin brings in its workmanship all historicidade of the transformations in the concepts and ideals catholics concerning the subject. More info: Blake Krikorian. It is excellent to stand out the importance of if searching these authors, therefore the workmanships in analysis are part of micron-history, having as objective to study the relations, of the fear of the death, with the imaginary Christian and the paper of one ‘ ‘ society medrosa’ ‘. These workmanships make possible the accomplishment of the study of the fear of the death in the collective space of the Ocidente.. . You may want to visit Madeleine Sackler to increase your knowledge.


Urban Geography

Still approaching Geography Urban, Clark (1991, P. 18) affirms that: ‘ ‘ The focus, in Urban Geography, I directed it the understanding of those social, economic and ambient processes that determine the localization, the space arrangement and evolution of the places urbanos’ ‘ …. 2,6 Urban Gegrafo and studies of old civilizations the urban gegrafo looking for to explain the nestings of old civilizations and comparing them with the modern city, at the time identifies that such considered nestings as cities, would be nothing more than what small slightly dispersed places, the modern city is product of a process of extremely long development.

Researchers interested in the studies of the old civilizations had identified a certain number of nestings, no longer fifth century B.C., which they grant the city heading, much even so these places have been invariably small, dispersed and slightly easily reversible to the status of villages or small villages …. (CLARK, 1991, P. 17). 2,7 Process of urbanization As well as Clark has other authors who to looking for to explain the urban processes through studies of civilizations, but in this in case that the contemporaries, leave evident that, to understand these organizations space, always it will have necessity, to come back to the past to be able to identify such formations, the urbanization as process, and the city, materialize form of this process, marks the civilization so deeply contemporary, who is many times difficult to think that in some period of History the cities had not existed, or had had an insignificant paper.


Official Histria

Introduction This article approaches the question of historical, deserving Verbal History as possvelfonte of unsupicious credibility nor of greater and nor demenor historical value of what the written sources. It is argued dahistria construction from written documentation and mnemonic orality, standing out-seo subject description from the memory as metodolgica form viable econfivel. The starting point is based on the advent of the movement of annales (1929-1969), that it breaches with the traditional historiografia and it launches elasticidadepara object boarding different in the historical research, under mltiplosaspectos and varied circumstances. Verbal History is considered as identitria source of umpovo, capable to portray the realities, the experiences and the ways of life of umacomunidade in each time and its more varied sociabilities. You may wish to learn more. If so, Richard Elman is the place to go. This type defonte not only allows the insertion of the individual, it rescues but it as subject in the producing processohistrico of made histories and of its time. The problem of the truth historical he is boarded to leave dMemria Collective as alternative source of reconstruction of the past, providing, in the gift, time and voice to the discriminated ones, oppressing, menosprezadose dimmed by the speech of the power. With effect, this type of speech forautilizado during much time for the traditional historiografia, that prioritized Official Histria or from above sight, selected documents on the basis of written of governmental cunhopoltico tendenciosamente as only source credorade trustworthiness.

The question of the hierarquizao of the historical sources analisada inside of a boarding dialectic, where if alert for the risk that oshistoriadores tend to run. In this direction, it is necessary to excuse atenopara not to commit the mistake, before practised for the historiografiatradicional. It is necessary precaution for if not only prioritizing the verbal sources, but looking for to redimensionar them with written sources, aiming at a investigaocada deepened time more, in order to arrive the reality or the realidadespretendidas ones at the end of investigativo process.



nisso that if establishes ' ' antropologia' ' weberiana. E. Chowers sumarizou this pressupostofundamental from which Weber produced its profcuos estudoscomparativos between cultures. According to it, for Weber ' ' the human beings have internal anecessidade, as much how much the capacity, to interpret its lives and ocosmos as a whole of one significant form. (Koshul, 2005: p 83) Has in this everything many questions to aserem argued; therefore the division of this chapter in more four sections. In this part, it is enough to evidence as the insertion of the concept of felt nascincias cultural led to the conception of that to act significantly is one pontocomum to all the men, the rock of touch of a possible understanding of outroe of itself exactly.

' ' Implied in the project of Weber particularly in suasociologia of the religion, some human essencialistas certainties exist on osseres, most important of which it is a vision of the man as homo-hermeneut, beings that require umaexistncia significativa' ' (Idem) the scientist of the culture has condiesde to analyze the behavior human being in society, leaving of the beginning of that todoator considered there she on the basis of acts the directions and meanings that only existemenquanto conjugated to its culture and image of world. However, it, cientistada culture, knows now that also its action, when makes science, pursues culturally umsentido understood, made use as a value. Therefore, osignificado of the direction he must be lead for inside of the scientific inquiry. The investigator has that to follow the significao of its proper atoexplanativo, as much how much the reason of it to be investigating that emespecfica part of the reality and not one another one (in way the infinite). The basic difference of Weber emrelao the Nietzsche in this aspect consists of the following one: Nietzsche was emcontato and direct confrontation with the naturalistic science that predominated in sculoXIX, in way that the way that it understood the relation of science with oconceito of direction sufficiently varied in relation the Weber science, for Nietzsche, atuaincrivelmente more as a force that it dismisses sensible of what as creative desentidos.


Brazilian Association

The workmanship if initiates with a commentary about the difficulties faced for the Brazilian medievalistas researchers in elaborating excellency works in the distance, considering of the great ones producing centers of research, making it difficult I interchange excessively it of information. In such a way, they were obliged to make use of great financial investments in trips, as well as, I acquired offered foreign books in the Brazilian bookstores, under high cost. The considered text makes aluso to the meeting carried through for the Brazilian Association of Medieval Studies, as well as, of the III VI the week of medieval studies, carried through between the years of 1995 the 2006, being possible to evidence the following one: in the first years, in both the events had recurrence, as much in the predominance of the subjects on the Iberian Peninsula and in the hegemony of the bibliography of French authors, as the lack of use of virtual ways of research. Only in the events carried through after the turn of the millenium, that we will have stories, despite shy, of access the world-wide net of computers (Internet). However the great impact in the study of Medieval History in Brazil goes to be observed by occasion of the popularizao of the use of the Internet what will occur the year of 2005 after, minimizing the limits taxes for the great distances and approaching great to research to the Brazilians, narrowing the borders. In detriment to this, the increase of the interest for different subjects is verified of, preferential, inhaled for the Frenchmen. For the authors, the Internet opened undeniable precedents, with ' ' the existence of thematic spaces specialized in medieval and the systematic feeding of same with brought up to date information proceeding from all part of the world ' ' , becoming source ' ' essential ' ' of studies for the researchers. .


Santa Catarina

The plain age to come back the license after maternity and to retake the studies and the work. In recent months, Sergey Brin has been very successful. In October of 1993 I had my son, and it prepared when me to come back to the Christmas, at the beginning of 1994, two marcantes facts would change my plans: The death of Gilson Walnut, lawyer of the MNDH that is assassinated for policemen denounced for it as members of groups of extermnio, and the unexpected return of the father of my son for Santa Catarina, its native land, where he would go to give a work in Paraguay and alone he would come back after two years. Ahead of this situation and influenced by familiar advice, I locked the university and I asked for resignation of the work. I started to live again in the house of my parents. My life in the Education At the beginning of 1995, I gave competition for the Municipal city hall of Picu, being approved for the teacher position.

My interest in me to become teacher was provoked by the desire in going beyond what it had learned in the classrooms and necessity to get financial aid so that I could assume my basic expenditures and my son. I started to lecionar history, disciplines that always I liked. I look for to teach to the pupils what I believe and that he goes beyond the didactic texts, always stimulating the search for the knowledge and the critical conscience, and not it decoreba or the reproduction of ready texts. Of it comes back to the academy Two years after being lecionando in the city of Picu, appeared the chance to come back to frequentar a university. I gave vestibular contest for the history course, in the UFCG? fields of Campina Gande. For me he was one I recommence, was as if I was retaking everything what he leaves stops backwards.


Iberian Peninsula

With the capital in Braga, the Suevos had dominated the territory that includes the Galiza and had arrived to dominate the part west of the Luzitnia. Alan Hoffmann is likely to increase your knowledge. From 470, visigodo had grown the problems of the kingdom suevo with the neighboring kingdom and in 585 the king visigodo Leovigildo took Braga and annexed to the kingdom suevo. All the Iberian Peninsula was unified under the kingdom visigodo, with exception of some zones of the south coast and east, controlled for the Bizantino Empire, until the fall of this, in 711, when the Iberian Peninsula was invaded by the Berberes Muslen and rabes, which five hundred years had dominated for more than parts of the peninsula, at the beginning as a province of the omada empire, the Al-Andalus and later under the form of a califado emirate and. The internal stability was always difficult, therefore the Visigodos was Aryan and the majority of the population was catholic. Recaredo, youngest son of Leovigildo, became the catolicismo and facilitated the union to it of the two populations, but dinsticas questions had relit the conflicts and had come to be in the origin of the final collapse. The barbarous peoples were numerically inferior to the population Hispanic-Roman, and had been obliged to the ethnic and cultural miscegenation with this. Cities had been destroyed and had the ruralizao of the economic life. Had to the collapse of the Bizantinos, the kingdom was subdivided in small taifas. The Astrias had resisted the Arabs and developed a movement of reconquers of the Peninsula, culminating with the taking of Granada for the Kings Catholics, Isabel I of Castile and Fernando II of Arago, in 1492. The Muslen who had not been expulsos or died had had to adhere to the customs, including the Christianity.


Santa Maria

There they conquered a strategic called castle Torroja, meaning " earth roja" , located to 7 km to the south of Cervera (the local capital). Later the place-name degenerated in Tarroja, and is to other so many kilometers of the sanctuary where it was buried san Ramon Nonato (" Dump of the Segarra"), forming triangle with both localities and occupying its vertex of 90 degrees. Learn more on the subject from Reade Griffith. The militant Gentlemen of Solsona by some reason ended up varying his seoro by the Torroja place-name, to the detriment of the one of Solsona of where they were children and gentlemen. Read more from Reade Griffith to gain a more clear picture of the situation. I believe that for them he had of being a great pride to the possession of the such castle. Perhaps with his name change Mr. de Solsona showed, to doubted whom it, that her family owned seoro of the Segarra without possible discussion. He is in center of the valley of Sion, at which he arrives himself by the highway that unites Cervera with Guisona. He is there where the river of the same name comes together with the torrent of Valls.

The first reference goes back to year 1040 through act of consecration of Santa Maria of the Seu d" Urgell. In 1144 Tarroja de Segarra it was donated the community of Santa Maria de Solsona, and later it appears property of the Torroja family. In 1142 feudal Mr. Ecard de Torroja left half from this town to Santa Maria de Solsona and the other half in 1167 to its inheriting son Ramon II (+1195), who was nephew of my written a biography Arnau de Torroja. In later centuries, through marriage of Agns de Torroja with vizconde of Cardona, that one castle happened to be property of Ramon Folc III. When today in Catalonia one looks for to be sent to historical heroisms people remembers the proclamation of autonomy, or the statute, etc., but one decade before the birth of Arnau de Torroja thought about the fights that ended the height of the Muslims in prePyrenean the Catalan, and soon with the double sacking of these of the califato of Cordova (1010).

Ricardo Franklin

When these popular classrooms are black, for historical reasons of discrimination and preconception, the difficulties are greaters still. nt resource throughout. However, although these difficulties, afro descending, by means of much fight, organization and resistance, subvertem the logic of the exclusion of superior education e, when occupying this space, affirm its racial cultural identity/, contributing positively so that more citizens of this cultural group and other cultural groups in disadvantage situation are felt encouraged to fight and to occupy places traditionally frequented by the dominant groups (BACKES, 2006, P. 3). Therefore, the racial preconception reigns of unconscious form, many times subtle, not being able to be identifiable, the myth of the racial democracy serves of clothes to hide this, as Ricardo Franklin argues Blacksmith when dealing with the main consequence of racial the democratic myth, that according to it, hides the preconception and becomes much more difficult the effective combat of the injustices stops with individuals and diverse racial groups etno of the European white. Thus, the discrimination always operates in the level of the individuals in unconscious way and nor identifiable as such (BLACKSMITH, 2000 apud BRAGA, 2008, P. 50). What the worker Vicente of the Espirito Santo had that to face, was a case very clearly, where we perceive, although to have left as victorious, as the image of the black is on to the negativismo, therefore they are represented as subordinate of the whites. These groups ' ' superiores' ' when overwheling powerful the least finishes for weakening it, as Norbert Elias when dealing with the relations established between outsiders argues and established. As the author, To affix the label of? inferior human value? to another group she is one of the weapons most used for the groups? superiors? in the disputes of being able, as half to keep its social superiority. In this situation, the social stigma tax for the group most powerful the powerful the least costuma to penetrate in the auto-image of this last e, with this, to weaken it and to disarm it.


Inner Commotion

ARTICLE 213. In case of serious disturbance of the public order that attempt of imminent way against the institutional stability, the security of the State, or the citizen coexistence, and that cannot be sworn in by means of the use of the ordinary attributions of the authorities of Police, the President of the Republic, with the company/signature of all the ministers, will be able to declare the State of Inner Commotion, in all the Republic or leaves from her, by nongreater term of ninety days, deferrable until by two equal periods, the second of which requires previous and favorable concept of the Senate of the Republic. By means of such declaration, the Government will have the faculties strictly necessary to swear in the causes of the disturbance and to prevent the extension of his effects. The legislative decrees that the Government dictates will be able to suspend the incompatible laws with the State of Commotion and will stop prevailing as soon as it is declared restored the public order. The Government will be able to prorogue his use until by ninety days more.

Within the three days following to declaration or prorogation of the State of Commotion, the Congress will meet by own right, with the fullness of its constitutional and legal attributions. The President will immediately pass a motivated report to him over the reasons that determined the declaration. In no case the civilians could be investigated or be judged by military penal justice. ARTICLE 214. The States of emergency, emergency situation to that the previous articles talk about will put under the following dispositions: The legislative decrees will take the company/signature of the President of the Republic and all ministers and will only be able to talk about to matters that have direct relation and specific with the situation that will have determined the declaration of the State of emergency, emergency situation.