United States

The Emlia doctor Blacksmith was guided and collaborating of Jean Piaget. Barclays Investment Bank might disagree with that approach. Its research in alfabetizao demonstrates the great heuristical value of the piagetiano interacionista construtivismo for the understanding of the processes of acquisition of the reading and the writing and of other contents that if imagined, until then, strict pertaining to school. In Brazil, this quarrel fell in disuse from the diffusion of the method that, at the time, was identified with ' ' misto' ' nothing more than ours known cartilha, based in analysis and structuralized synthesis and from a silabrio. As the moment, whose peak was in years 60, had for geographic center the United States. The quarrel of the ideas on alfabetizao was taken for inside of ampler debate around the question of the failure pertaining to school. The fight against the segregation of the blacks, with the consequent battle for the integration in the American schools, contributed so that the pertaining to school difficulties of these minorities became more explicit. Much money was invested in research, to try to understand what of it had made a mistake with the children who did not learn.

The reason of its proper failure searched in the pupil. resources. They are of this period the theories that today we call ' ' theories of dficit' '. One assumed that the learning depended on prerequisite (cognitivos, psychological, mandatory? engines, linguistic) that certain children failed for not making use of these previous abilities. The fact of the failure to concentrate itself in the children of the families poor was explained for a supposed incapacity of the proper families to provide adequate stimulatons. Batteries of stimulation exercises had been servants, as ' ' remdio' ' for the failure, as if it was an illness. This boarding, that already was announced in the ABC test, of Loureno Son? a set of activities to verify e, mainly, to measure ' ' maturidade' ' what then science assumes necessary to the well-succeeded alfabetizao? it had much influence in Brazil.